Experimental Investigation of a CRM65 Wingtip Mockup under Appendix C and Appendix O Icing Conditions
Reinhard Puffing, Thomas Neubauer, Richard Moser, Wolfgang Hassler, Simon Schweighart, Hermann Ferschitz,
Stefan Diebald, Wolfgang Breitfuss and David Kozomara
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1386
Research institutes and companies are currently working on 3D numerical icing tools for the prediction of ice
shapes on an international level. Due to the highly complex flow situation, the prediction of ice shapes on three-dimensional surfaces represents a challenge. An essential component for the
development and subsequent validation of 3D ice accretion codes are detailed experimental data from ice shapes accreted on relevant geometries, like wings of a passenger aircraft for example. As
part of the Republic of Austria funded research project JOICE, a mockup of a wingtip, based on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration common research model CRM65 was designed and
manufactured. For further detailed investigation of electro-thermal de-icing systems, various heaters and thermocouples were included. The mockup was investigated in the Icing Wind Tunnel of Rail
Tec Arsenal in Vienna, Austria under various Appendix C and Appendix O icing conditions with and without activated heating systems. The resulting ice structures were documented and analyzed by
using 3D and 4D scanning systems. This paper provides information about the design of the mockup, the test setup in the Icing Wind Tunnel well as the applied documentation procedures.
Furthermore, an overview of the conducted experimental investigations is given, and selected results and evaluations are presented.
Experimental Investigation of UAS Rotors and Ice Protection Systems in Appendix C Icing Conditions
David Kozomara, Jakob Amon, Reinhard Puffing, Thomas Neubauer, Simon Schweighart, Stefan Diebald, Andreas
Rapf, Richard Moser and Wolfgang Breitfuss
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1380
If an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) encounters icing conditions during flight, those conditions might result in
degraded aerodynamic performance of the overall UAS. If the UAS is not reacting appropriately, safety critical situations can quickly arise. Thereby, the rotors, respectively the propellers of
the UAS are especially susceptible due to the increased airflow through their domain and the corresponding higher impingement rate of supercooled water droplets. In many cases, the UAS cannot be
properly operated if the rotors are not fully functional, as they are a vital component. The FFG/BMK funded research and development project “All-weather Drone” is investigating the icing
phenomenon on UAS rotors for a 25 kg maximum take-off weight (MTOW) multirotor UAS and evaluating the feasibility of possible technical ice detection and anti-/de-icing solutions. This paper
presents results from the investigation carried out at the Rail Tec Arsenal (RTA) icing wind tunnel (IWT) in Vienna, Austria, where UAS rotors were exposed to defined icing conditions based on
EASA CS-25 Appendix C. The experimental tests featured various rotors which were exposed to icing conditions without any protective measures to better understand the influence of ice accretion on
the aerodynamic performance. In addition, possible technical solutions in form of an electrothermal and chemical anti-/de-icing system, as well as an ice-repellent surface coating were
investigated. During the tests, the performance (power, thrust, torque) of the UAS rotors was monitored. The final ice accretion was documented by 3D laser scanning and photographs. The objective
of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of icing of UAS rotors, while also investigating solutions that might enable the safe operation of multirotor UAS in icing conditions in
Time Resolved 3D Scanning of Ice Geometries in a Large Climatic Wind Tunnel
Thomas Neubauer, David Kozomara, Reinhard Puffing and Luca Teufl
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1414
In the scope of development or certification processes for the flight under known icing conditions, aircraft
have to be tested in icing wind tunnels under relevant conditions. The documentation of these tests has to be performed at a high level of detail. The generated data is used to prove the
functionality of the systems, to develop new systems and for scientific purposes, for example the development or validation of numerical tools for ice accretion simulation. One way of documenting
the resulting ice geometry is the application of an optical 3D scanning or reconstruction method. This work investigates and reviews optical methods for three-dimensional reconstructions of
objects and the application of these methods in ice accretion documentation with respect to their potential of time resolved measurement. Laboratory tests are performed for time-of flight
reconstruction of ice geometries and the application of optical photogrammetry with and without multi-light approach. The results of the pre-tests and the review of existing methods are evaluated
with respect to scaling of the methods for application in a large icing wind tunnel. As a result of this process, multi-view photogrammetry is used for 3D reconstruction of ice accretion on a
common research model wing tip installed in the icing wind tunnel of Rail Tec Arsenal. The results are compared with 3D laser scans of the final ice geometry. The presented approach allows a time
resolved quantitative documentation of an icing process without interrupting the experimental ice accretion process.
Comparison of Numerical Simulations with Experimental Data for an Electrothermal Ice Protection System
in Appendix O Conditions
Wolfgang Breitfuß, Richard Moser, Wolfgang Hassler, Hermann Ferschitz, Thomas Neubauer, Reinhard Puffing, Stefan Diebald and Simon Schweighart
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1396
This paper provides information on the comparison of numerical simulations with experimental data for an
electrothermal ice protection system with a focus on Appendix O Freezing Drizzle (FZDZ) and Freezing Rain (FZRA) conditions. The experimental data is based on a test campaign with a 2D NACA23012
wing section in the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel in Vienna. 22 icing runs (all either unheated or in anti-ice mode) were performed in total and all residual ice shapes were documented by means of
high-resolution 3D scanning. Unheated FZDZ and FZRA reference as well as heated cases with different heater configurations are presented. The experimental results are compared to numerical
predictions from two different icing codes from AeroTex GmbH (ATX) and the University of Applied Sciences FH JOANNEUM (FHJ) in Graz. The current capabilities of the codes were assessed in detail
and regions for improvement were identified. Overall, the codes were able to predict the ice shapes of both the unheated and heated cases with reasonable accuracy but both codes overestimated the
thickness of the runback ice ridges throughout all cases. The biggest deviations in terms of the position of the ice accretions were seen on the lower surface; on the upper surface a better match
Introduction of an Online Ice Accretion Database
Thomas Neubauer and Reinhard Puffing
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1464
In the course of the Horizon 2020 project ICE GENESIS of the European Union, an experimental database was
developed to host documentation of icing experiments. The database serves as a source of information for numerical code development and validation as well as future test matrix design, IPS layout
and development and wing design. Several legacy data icing cases have been included into the database, which are partly publicly available. Furthermore, the database will serve as the main
platform for dissemination of public results of icing cases after and during the project ICE GENESIS. The database itself provides detailed information about the test configurations and the icing
wind tunnel. More specifically, CAD data, ice protection system characteristics if applicable, installation in the test facility, instrumentation, test matrix, generated aero-icing conditions and
test results are included. Within the ICE GENESIS project, the documentation of the resulting ice accretion is done by the application of 3D scanning systems, which allows detailed ice shape
evaluation and validation of 3D numerical tools performances. The database covers a large set of representative configurations (2D and 3D wings, engine inlets, cylinders) and will complement
worldwide existing databases.
Engine Cascade Rig Design Tests and Results in App C Conditions
Hugo Pervier, Clément Vénuat and Thomas Neubauer
SAE 2023 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1419
Current modelling capability for engine icing accretion prediction is still limited for App. C. To further validate icing codes in complex engine geometries, it is necessary to perform additional experimental work in relevant geometrical and environmental conditions. Within the frame of ICE GENESIS, an experiment has been setup to replicate the condition at the inlet of an engine first stage compressor. This paper describes the choices for the design of the engine compressor model, the setup within the icing wind tunnel and the methodology employed to obtain the results. Additionally, more effort has been focused on obtaining accurate ice shapes using a 3D scanning system. Results of 3D scans are given.
Generation of Validation Data for an Electrothermal Ice Protection System
Richard Moser, Bernhard Reinholz, Wolfgang Breitfuß, Stefan Diebald, Philipp Kollmann, Sebastian Humpel, Reinhard Puffing, David Kozomara, Simon Schweighart, Wolfgang Hassler, Thomas Neubauer and Andreas Tramposch
AIAA AVIATION FORUM 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-3457
This paper provides information on the generation of validation data for electrothermal ice protection system numerical tools, based on testing on a 2D wing section at the RTA test facility in Vienna. Updates to the RTA calibration capability are provided, including for the Freezing Rain, MVD > 40 microns regime. Latest developments in ice shape scanning and post-processing are shown, including for runback ice generated from heated cases. Some preliminary comparisons to the measured data are provided using different simulation tools, including unheated ice shapes.
Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Icing on Multicopter UAS Operation
David Kozomara, Thomas Neubauer, Reinhard Puffing, Ingeborg Bednar and Wolfgang Breitfuss
AIAA AVIATION FORUM 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2676
The implications of icing for the operation of multicopter unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have not been thoroughly investigated yet. Due to the geometry and flight envelope of multicopters, existing knowledge in the field of aircraft icing can only be applied in a limited manner. More research is required to better understand the influence of icing on the flight characteristics, on-board systems, and sensors of multicopters. Studies performed on single UAS propellers show that icing can lead to critical flight conditions in a very short period of less than 60 seconds. Icing of the propeller blades reduces the aerodynamic performance while increasing the required power input at constant rotational speed. This paper features a more top-level approach and investigates the effects of icing on the operation of a multicopter with 25 kg maximum take-off weight. Therefore, experimental icing tests were conducted at the Rail Tec Arsenal Climatic Wind Tunnel in Vienna, Austria. The multicopter was mounted on a testbed and operated in defined icing conditions according to Appendix C and Appendix O (freezing drizzle) conditions. The rotational speed of the propellers was maintained until a certain power limit, or the predefined icing time was reached. The final ice accretion was documented by means of 3D scanning and evaluated. Moreover, a surface roughness analysis of the propeller blade ice accretion was performed.
Determination of Droplet Impingement on an Octocopter at different Flight and Icing Conditions with CFD Methods
Andreas Tramposch, Michael Thomann and David Kozomara
AIAA AVIATION FORUM 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2501
A simple and efficient CFD workflow was developed to identify critical areas on small multicopters in regard of ice accretion when flying in icing conditions. Using a transient rotor stator model for rotor blade simulation inside a stationary domain containing the multicopter airframe, a transient Euler-Lagrangian multiphase flow simulation was used to calculate water droplet trajectories and impingement for various icing and flight conditions. For an Appendix O freezing drizzle icing case the numerical results from an octocopter cruise flight were validated with measurement data gained from an experimental investigation performed in the Rail Tec Arsenal Icing Wind Tunnel in Vienna, Austria for same icing and flight conditions. Thereafter, total and local droplet impingement rates on the octocopter obtained from CFD simulations were compared with results gained from 3D scans of the octocopter with accrued ice after the experimental icing process.
Assessment of Ice Shape Roughness via Automatic Spacing of Codebook Vectors in a Two-Dimensional Self-Organizing Map
Thomas Neubauer and Reinhard Puffing
AIAA AVIATION FORUM 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2020-2806
Characterization and assessment of ice shape roughness can be done by evaluating the point cloud from a three-dimensional scan of the iced surface. One way of evaluating this point cloud is the application of the neural network technique Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), which was already successfully applied in previous examination and studies of ice shape roughness. This algorithm is based on codebook vectors, which position themselves in local clumps of multidimensional and noisy data. The connection of those codebook vectors represents the mean shape or manifold of the investigated rough object. The magnitude of scattering of the data points about this manifold can then be interpreted as the roughness by applying statistical evaluations. The amount of codebook vectors needed is usually an input parameter for the algorithm. The manual process of determining different regions in the shape and determination of their optimal number of codebook vectors is a time consuming and iterative process. However, a certain statistical requirement exists on how sparse or dense the codebook vectors shall be positioned. In this study, this requirement is used to automate the whole process from point cloud input to calculation of the roughness parameters for each codebook vector region. This algorithm is exemplarily applied to a NACA 0012 wing, exposed to appendix C icing conditions in the icing wind tunnel of Rail Tec Arsenal in Vienna, Austria.
Ice Shape Roughness Assessment Based on a Three-Dimensional Self-Organizing Map Approach
Thomas Neubauer, Wolfgang Hassler and Reinhard Puffing
AIAA AVIATION FORUM 2020, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2020-2805
One approach of performing ice roughness analysis is the evaluation of three-dimensional scanned point clouds of the iced surface. The point cloud data can then be evaluated via the neural network technique Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). A two-dimensional version of this machine learning algorithm has already been successfully applied in previous studies. However, an extension to three dimensions is highly desirable, as it enables the evaluation of ice roughness on arbitrary surfaces and shapes. Nevertheless, the implementation in three dimensions holds some difficulties, as curvature-induced roughness artefacts occur during evaluation. In this paper, the extension of the SOM algorithm from two to three dimensions is presented. Furthermore, a method for the mitigation of curvature induced roughness artefacts is introduced. This curvature correction is based on a local surface and curvature approximation and significantly reduces the curvature-induced errors. Two test cases for validation of the curvature-corrected three-dimensional SOM method are presented. The first test case is an artificially created point cloud with known and assigned roughness. The second test case is a 3D scanned point cloud of an NACA0012 wing, exposed to SLD icing conditions in the icing wind tunnel of Rail Tec Arsenal in Vienna, Austria.
Validation of Ice Roughness Analysis Based on 3D-Scanning and Self-Organizing Maps
Thomas Neubauer, David Kozomara, Reinhard Puffing and Wolfgang Hassler
SAE 2019 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1992
3D-scanning is an established method for the documentation of wing ice accretion. The generated 3D-data can be used to determine specific parameters of interest, like the local ice-thickness, or the surface ice roughness. The surface roughness has significant impact on the heat transfer, and therefore on the icing process itself. Insights into the effects of surface roughness on the ice accretion and the correlated aerodynamical effects contribute to the improvement of icing codes. In this paper, the surface roughness of various test specimens is determined by performing a self-organizing maps (SOM) approach for roughness point cloud analysis on data generated with a 3D-scanner. A validation of the SOM method is achieved by means of focus variation microscopy and a mathematical proof of the utilized SOM algorithm. Different scanning systems from several manufacturers are used to determine the surface of different sandpapers. This investigation shows the limits and capabilities of state-of-the-art 3D-scanning systems in the field of surface roughness. Furthermore, the roughness model is calibrated to absolute surface parameters, such as the mean arithmetic roughness Ra or the root mean squared roughness Rq.
Aerodynamic Assessment of Complex 3D Ice Shape Replications
Reinhard Puffing, Wolfgang Hassler, Thomas Neubauer, David Kozomara and Hermann Ferschitz
SAE 2019 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1936
This work introduces an approach allowing the detailed replication of ice shapes generated in icing wind tunnels, with a special focus on complex and strongly varying ice structures, e.g., ice feathers or residual ice stemming from incomplete removal of accreted ice by ice protection systems. 3D-scans are used as an input for the manufacturing process of the ice shape replica. The manufacturing approach itself is based on additive techniques using semi-flexible materials. In contrast to existing replication techniques, this approach allows also clean areas between ice-covered surface locations. In the present paper, a quality assessment based on the comparison of the lift coefficients of real and corresponding artificial ice shapes is presented.
Ice Shape Mapping by Means of 4D-Scans
Reinhard Pufffing, Wolfgang Hassler, Andreas Tramposch and Marian Peicar
SAE 2015 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2151
When studying ice accretion processes experimentally it is desirable to document the generated ice shapes as accurately as possible. The obtained set of data can then be used for aerodynamic studies, the improvement of icing test facilities, the development of design criteria, the validation of ice accretion simulation tools as well as other applications. In the past, various ice shape documentation methods have been established including photography, cross-sectional tracing, molding and casting as well as 3D-scanning. This work introduces a new ice shape documentation technique based on active 3D-scanning in combination with fluorescent dyes and an optimized set of optical filters. The new approach allows recording the time-resolved three dimensional growth of an arbitrary ice shape. Based on this concept a so-called 4D-scanning system is developed, which allows a detailed evaluation of icing experiments and hence a better understanding of the ice accretion process itself. The scanning system has been successfully implemented and tested in two icing wind tunnels of completely different size, namely FH JOANNEUM's small scaled icing wind tunnel and Rail Tec Arsenal's large icing wind tunnel.
Computational and Experimental Investigation of Ice Particle Accretion in a Generic Pack Discharge Duct
Andreas Tramposch, Wolfgang Hassler and Reinhard Puffing
SAE 2015 International Conference on Icing of Aircraft, Engines, and Structures, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2082
Certain operating modes of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of passenger aircraft are accompanied with significant ice particle accretion in a number of pivotal parts of the system. Icing
conditions particularly prevail downstream of the air conditioning packs and, as a consequence, ice particle accretion takes place in the Pack Discharge Duct (PDD) and in the mixing manifold. For
a better understanding of these icing processes, numerical simulations using a multiphase model based on a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model in a generic PDD were performed. The
obstruction of the PDD due to ice growth and the resulting change of the flow geometry were treated by deforming the computational mesh during the CFD simulations. In addition to the numerical
investigations, a generic and transparent PDD was studied experimentally under several operating conditions in FH JOANNEUM's icing wind tunnel.